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India - Overview


FERTILIZERS PLANTS OF INDIA


India today is the third largest producer of nitrogenous fertilizers in the world. There are at present 63 fertilizers units manufacturing a wide range of nitrogenous and complex fertilizers, including 38 units producing urea and 9 units producing ammonium sulphate as a by-product. Besides, there are about 79 units producing single superphosphate.

The production capacity of nitrogen has increased from a modest 85,000 tonnes in 1951-52 to 105.20 lakh tonnes as on 30 Novemver 1998 and that of phosphatic fertilizers from 63,000 tonnes to 31.70 lakh tonnes of P2O5 during the same period. Against the nominal production of 16,000 tonnes of nitrogen and 11,000 thousand tonnes of P2O5 in 1951-52, the country produced 100.86 lakh tonnes of nitrogen and 29.76 lakh tonnes of P2O5 during 1997-98.

The public sector has been playing a dominant role in the fertilizer industry.The first State-owned fertilizer unit was set up in 1951 at Sindri in Bihar which was followed by another plant at Nangal in Punjab. With the coming up of another fertilizer plant at Trombay, the government decided to bring all the public-sector fertilizer units under the management of a single undertaking and the Fertilizer Corporation of India (FCI) was accordingly incorporated in January 1961. At present, there are nine public sector undertakings under the administrative control of Department of Fertilizers. FCI has now four units, one each at Sindri(Bihar), Gorakhpur(U.P), Talcher (Orissa) and Ramagundam (Andhra Pradesh). Other fertilizers plants under the control of other undertakings are located at Bhatinda, Panipat, Vijaipur, Trombay, Namrup, Durgapur, Cochin, Paradeep, Talcher and Rourkela.

Indian Airlines is the major domestic air carrier of the country. It operates to 57 domestic stations (including Alliance Air operations) and 17 international stations in 14 countries, viz., Pakistan, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Thailand, Singapore, UAE, Oman, Myanmar, Kuwait, Qatar and Bahrain. Its operations, including Alliance Air covers 76 destinations including 16 abroad. The Airlines owns a fleet of eleven A-300, thirty A-320, twelve B-737 and three Dornier -228 aircraft. All Boeing B- 737 aircrafts are being operated by its wholly owned subsidiary Alliance Air.

Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited has been providing helicopter support services to the petroleum sector including ONGC, Oil India Limited and Hardy Exploration at Chennai. Apart from these, it also provides services to certain state governments and public sector undertakings and in the north-eastern states.

Foreign airlines carrying international passenger traffic to and from India existed long before Independence. Their operations are governed by bilateral agreements signed from time to time between the Government of India and the governments of respective countries. In 1980-81, the number of such airlines was 35. It rose to 49 in 1996-97.The share of foreign airlines in India's scheduled international traffic has increased. In 1971, their share was 55.58 per cent which went up to 65 per cent and declined to 58 per cent during 1972-75. It fell to 55.72 per cent in 1976 and further to 55.02 per cent in 1977. Between 1978 and 1990 it gradually increased and rose to 75.93 per cent. In 1996, the share was nearly 72 per cent.


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