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Geological Map India



GEOLOGY OF INDIA


India has a diverse geology akin to that of her people, climate and size. Its different regions contain rocks of all types belonging to different periods of Geological Time Scale. Some rocks are badly deformed and metamorphosed while others are recently deposited alluvium that are yet to undergo digenesis. Mineral deposits of great diversity are found in the subcontinent in large quantity. Even the fossil records are impressive in that they include stromatolites, invertebrates, vertebrates and plant fossils.

India's geological features can be divided based on their formation in different periods of the Geological Time Scale. Accordingly, India's geographical land can be classified into Deccan Trap, Gondwana and Vindhyan and into those that originated in Pleistocene, Tertiary, and Pre-Cambrian Period.

The Deccan Trap covers almost all of Maharashtra, a part of Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh marginally. Geologists believe that the Deccan Trap was formed as result of sub-aerial volcanic activity associated with continental divergence in this part of the earth during the Mesozoic era. The rocks found in this region are generally of igneous type.

The Gondwana and Vindhyan include within its fold parts of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttaranchal.

The Gondwana Supergroup forms a unique sequence of fluviatile rocks deposited in Permo-Carboniferous & Mesozoic times. Damodar and Sone river valley and Rahmahal hills in the eastern India are repositories of the Gondwana rocks.

The vast plateau mountains to the north of Narmada River in Madhya Pradesh and the adjoining areas of Malwa Plateau and Gangetic Plains form the Vindhyan cover. Here, the Deccan Trap and the alluvium conceal the rocks. The lower Vindhyans (Semri Group) are dominantly limestones, whereas the upper parts of the succession are mostly sandstones.

Formations, which are of recent or Pleistocene origin, are found over relatively large area of India. Parts of the geographical area of the states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Assam, Bihar and Haryana come under this geological category.

The Tertiary period has also left its imprints on the geological features of Manipur, Nagaland, and parts of Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Assam, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir.

Geological formations of Pre-Cambrian period are predominantly spread over large area of Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, and marginally over Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir.

The following diagram shows the different periods in the Geological Time Scale :


Eon         Period               Unit: Ma (Mega annum)
 
Era         Epoch               1 Ma = 106 years ago


PHANEROZOIC
  Cenozoic 65 - 0 Ma
  Quaternary 1.5 - 0.0 Ma
Holocene
Pleistocene
  Tertiary  
Neogene 26 - 1.5 Ma
Pliocene
Miocene
Palaeogene 65 - 26 Ma
Oligocene
Eocene
Palaeocene
Mesozoic 230 - 65 Ma
  Cretaceous 136 - 65 Ma
Late(Senonian)
Early(Neocomian)
  Jurassic 190 - 136 Ma
Late(Maim)
Middle(Dogger)
Early(Lias)
  Triassic 230 - 190 Ma
Late
Middle
Early
Palaeozoic 570 - 230 Ma
  Permian 280 - 230 Ma
Late
Middle
Early
  Carboniferous 345 - 280 Ma
Late(Pennsylvanian)
Early(Mississipian)
  Devonian 395 - 345 Ma
Late
Middle
Early
  Silurian 430 - 395 Ma
  Ordovician 395 - 345 Ma
Late
Early
  Cambrian 570 - 500 Ma
Late
Middle
Early
PRECAMBRIAN 4600 - 570 Ma
  Proterozoic 2500 - 570 Ma
  Upper 1600 - 570 Ma
Middle 2000 - 1600 Ma
Lower 2500 - 2000 Ma
  Archaean 2500 - 570 Ma
  Hadean 4600 - 3800 Ma



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