METAL INDUSTRIES OF INDIA
Metal industries are the indispensable
part of an economy; they form the backbone of industrial development
of any country.
In India the industrial development
began with the setting up of Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO)
at Jamshedpur in 1907. It started its production in 1912. Then came
up Burnpur and Bhadrawati Steel Plants in 1919 and 1923 respectively.
It was, however, only after the Independence that the steel industry
gas been able to find its feet. Barring the Jamshedpur plant of
the Tatas, all are in public sector and looked after by the Steel
Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL).
Bhilai and Bokaro plants were set
up with the Soviet collaboration. Durgapur and Rourkela came up
with British and German technology know-how respectively.
Iron and steel industry is by nature
a heavy industry. Proximity to raw materials and access to efficient
transportation network are crucial to this industry. The Chhotanagpur
plateau bordering West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh,
therefore has been the natural core of this industry.
Besides, iron and steel industry,
heavy engineering and machine tools industries are the main dealers
of metals. These industries have witnessed a phenomenal growth and
produces a whole range of capital goods and consumer durables. The
capital goods required for textile industry, fertilizer plants,
power projects, cements, steel and petro-chemical plants, mining,
construction and agricultural machineries such as equipment for
irrigation projects, diesel engines, pumps and tractors, transport
vehicles, etc. are being produced indigenously.
The Heavy Engineering Corporation
Ltd., set up at Ranchi in 1958 fabricates huge machines required
for the iron and steel industry. Locomotives are manufactured by
three units, viz. Locomotive Works, Chittaranjan (West Bengal),
Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh), and Tata Engineering
and Locomotive Co. Ltd. (TELCO), Jamshedpur. The Hindustan Machine
Tools Ltd. (HMT) is a major manufacturer of a wide range of machines
and tools. It has its units in Banglore, Pinjore(Haryana), Kalamassery(Kerala),
and Hyderabad. The HMT also produces a wide range of watches.
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL) is a public sector undertaking
which produces power generation equipments. Its manufacturing plants
are located at Bhopal, Tiruchirapalli, Hyderabad, Haridwar, Ranipet,
Banglore and Jagdishpur (Uttar Pradesh). The Hindustan Aeronautics
Ltd., Banglore has acquired capability of manufacturing aircrafys
of different types.It has its manufacturing units at Banglore ,
Kanpur, Nasik, Koraput, Hyderabad, and Lucknow.
Vishakhapatnam, Mumbai, Calcutta and
Kochi are the major center of ship-building industry.