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India - Overview


India with diverse and significant mineral resources is the leading producer of some of the minerals. Of the 89 minerals produced in India, 4 are fuel minerals, 11 metallic, 52 non-metallic and 22 minor minerals. The share of the mineral sector in the gross domestic product (GDP) of the country is around 3.5 per cent while accounting for 10 per cent share in the index of industrial production. Though 80 % of the mines are in the private sector, yet 91% of the production in terms of size comes from the government owned mining ventures. Mining employs over 8,00,000 persons.

India is the largest producer of mica blocks and mica splitting; ranks third in the production of barites and chromites; 4th in iron ore, 6th in bauxite and manganese ore, 10th in aluminum and 11th in crude steel. Iron- ore, copper-ore, chromites, zinc concentrates, gold, manganese ore, bauxite, lead concentrates and silver account for the entire metallic production. Limestone, magnesite, dolomite, barites, kaolin, gypsum, apatite and phosphorite, stealite and fluorite account for 92 per cent of non-metallic minerals.

Principal non-metallic minerals found in the country along with their estimated recoverable reserves are given below:

Asbestos The total recoverable reserves of asbestos in the country are placed at 93 million tones. Karnataka, Bihar and Rajasthan are the principal producers of asbestos

Dolomite The total recoverable reserves of all grades of dolomite are 4,387 million tones. Of these, the major share of about 92 per cent reserves is distributed in seven states- Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Gujarat, Karnataka, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.

Gypsum The recoverable reserves of gypsum are estimated at 238 million tones. The production of gypsum is confined to Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Jammu and Kashmir,Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat. Rajasthan is the main producer of gypsum followed by Jammu and Kashmir.

Limestone The total recoverable reserves of limestone of all grades and categories are placed at 76,446 million tones. The major states of its production are Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.

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